Brief explanations of legislative terms used throughout Congress.gov.
Formally end a meeting of a chamber or committee.
Adjournment sine die
An adjournment that terminates an annual session of Congress. A "sine die" ("without day") adjournment sets no day for reconvening, so that Congress will not meet again until the first day of the next session. Under the Constitution, adjournment sine die (except when the next session is about to convene) requires the agreement of both chambers, accomplished through adoption of a concurrent resolution, which in current practice also authorizes leaders of either chamber to reconvene its session if circumstances warrant.
A proposed change to a pending legislative text (e.g., a bill, resolution, treaty, or other amendment).
Also referred to as “amendments between the houses” or, colloquially, “ping-pong.” A method for reconciling differences between the two chambers’ versions of a measure by sending the measure back and forth between them until both have agreed to identical language.
Amendment in the nature of a substitute
Amendment that seeks to replace the entire text of an underlying measure.
Literally, “two chambers;” in a legislative body, having two houses (as in the House of Representatives and the Senate comprising the U.S. Congress).
The primary form of legislative measure used to propose law. Depending on the chamber of origin, bills begin with a designation of either H.R. or S.
Upon introduction of a bill or resolution in the House or Senate, legislative analysts in the Congressional Research Service (CRS) of the Library of Congress write a short summary that objectively describes the measure's significant provisions. Introduced version summaries are subject to length limitations as a matter of policy.
When a measure receives action (e.g., it is reported from a committee or passed by the House or Senate), the analysts then write an expanded summary, detailing the measure's effect upon programs and current law. Bill summaries are written as a result of a congressional action and may not always correspond to a document published by the Government Printing Office. A final Public Law summary is prepared upon enactment into law.
Each summary description identifies the date and version of the measure, and indicates whether there have been amendments: e.g., Passed House amended (07/19/2013).
A designation on a measure indicating that the member has introduced the measure on behalf of someone else (e.g., the President or an executive branch agency), or pursuant to statutory requirements, and may not necessarily support its provision.
Lists of measures, motions, and matters that are (or soon will become) eligible for consideration on the chamber floor; also, the official document that contains these lists and other information about the status of legislation and other matters. The House has four such calendars, published as one document; the Senate publishes two.
CBO - Congressional Budget Office
The Congressional Budget Office is a legislative branch agency that produces independent analyses of budgetary and economic issues to support the Congressional budget process.
The method by which a supermajority (typically, three-fifths) of the Senate may agree to limit further debate and consideration of a question (e.g., a bill, amendment, or other matter). Details of the procedural process are provided for in Rule XXII of the Senate standing rules.
Committee / subcommittee
A panel (or subpanel) with members from the House or Senate (or both) tasked with conducting hearings, examining and developing legislation, conducting oversight, and/or helping manage chamber business and activities.
A committee or subcommittee may interact with a bill in a variety of ways. Bills are referred to committee, committees markup bill texts and hold hearings to learn more about a topic, and committees report legislation out to the full chamber recommending or disapproving consideration.
The member of the majority party on a committee who has formal responsibility over the panel’s agenda and resources, presides at its meetings, and can, in some circumstances, act on the committee’s behalf.
Committee of the Whole
A parliamentary device designed to allow greater participation in floor consideration of measures. It can be understood as the House assembled in a different form; it is a committee of the House composed of every Representative that meets in the House chamber. The House considers many major measures in the Committee of the Whole.
Document accompanying a measure reported from a committee. It contains an explanation of the provisions of the measure, arguments for its approval, votes held in markup, individual committee members’ opinions, cost estimates, and other information.
Committee reports are published in the congressional report document series.
Identical or substantially similar measures introduced in the other chamber.
A form of legislative measure used for the regulation of business within both chambers of Congress, not for proposing changes in law. Depending on the chamber of origin, they begin with a designation of either H.Con.Res. or S.Con.Res.
Members of the House and Senate appointed to a conference committee. Also sometimes called “managers.”
Temporary joint committee created to resolve differences between House-passed and Senate-passed versions of a measure.
The document presenting an agreement reached by a joint temporary committee (a conference committee) appointed to negotiate a compromise between the House and Senate.
Congress (i.e., 2-year time-frame)
When referring to a time-period (e.g., the 113th Congress which convened on January 3, 2013) rather than the legislative branch generally, a Congress is the national legislature in office (for approximately two years). It begins with the convening of a new Congress comprised of members elected in the most-recent election and ends with the adjournment sine die of the legislature (typically after a new election has occurred).
The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the U.S. Congress. For every day Congress is in session, an issue of the Congressional Record is printed by the Government Printing Office. Each issue summarizes the day's floor and committee actions and records all remarks delivered in the House and Senate.
Congressional reports originate from congressional committees and deal with proposed legislation or issues under investigation. Congress issues different types of reports, including committee reports, conference reports and executive reports.
Congressional reports may be issued by the House or Senate. Depending on the chamber of origin, report citations begin with the Congress number during which it was issued and either H. Rpt. or S. Rpt., and an accession number (e.g., 112 H. Rpt. 1). Congressional reports are compiled in the U.S. Congressional Serial Set.
CRS - Congressional Research Service
The Congressional Research Service (CRS) of the Library of Congress works exclusively for the United States Congress, providing policy and legal analysis to committees and Members of both the House and Senate, regardless of party affiliation. CRS provides Congress with analysis that is authoritative, confidential, objective, and non-partisan.
A section of the Congressional Record summarizing the day's floor and committee actions in each chamber, with page references to the verbatim accounts of floor actions. It also lists the measures scheduled for action during each chamber's next meeting and the announcements of upcoming committee meetings.
The Digest appears at the back of each daily Record. Its pages are separately numbered and preceded by the letter D. In the bound Congressional Record, all Daily Digests for a session are printed in a separate volume.
Made into law.
Official copy of a measure as passed by one chamber, including the text as amended by floor action.
Final official copy of a measure as passed in identical form by both chambers and then printed on parchment for presentation to the President.
Federal depository library
Libraries where congressional and other federal publications are available for free public use. Federal depository libraries are located throughout the United States.
In the Senate, the use of dilatory or obstructive tactics to delay or block passage of a measure by preventing it from coming to a vote.
The requirement that an amendment be closely related—in terms of the precise subject or purpose, for example—to the text it proposes to amend. House rules require amendments to be germane; Senate rules apply this restriction only in limited circumstances.
GPO - Government Printing Office
Government Printing Office is a legislative branch agency that provides publishing and dissemination services for the official and authentic government publications to Congress, federal agencies, federal depository libraries, and the American public.
A formal meeting of a congressional committee (or subcommittee) to gather information from witnesses for use in its activities (that is, the development of legislation, oversight of executive agencies, investigations into matters of public policy, or Senate consideration of presidential nominations).
A request by a Senator to his or her party leader to delay floor action on a measure (e.g., bill) or matter (e.g., nomination), to be consulted on its disposition, and/or an indication that he or she would object to a unanimous consent request to consider said item of business or otherwise delay or obstruct consideration.
A wooden box on the House floor into which measures are dropped for formal introduction.
House Rules Committee
A committee in the House that, among other things, is responsible for reporting out "special rules"—simple resolutions that propose to the House tailored terms for debate and amendment of a measure on the House floor.
A bill that is word-for-word identical to another bill.
Joint explanatory statement
Statement appended to a conference report explaining the conference agreement and the intent of the conferees. Sometimes called a “statement of managers.”
A form of legislative measure used to propose changes in law, or to propose an amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Depending on the chamber of origin, they begin with a designation of either H.J.Res. or S.J.Res.
The constitutionally-mandated record of certain House and Senate actions, including motions offered, votes taken, and amendments agreed to. Unlike the Congressional Record, it does not contain remarks delivered in the House and Senate.
A set of policy issues that fall under the purview of a specific committee (or subcommittee); full committee jurisdiction is set by chamber standing rules and precedents.
Legislative action steps
Each chamber produces detailed, chamber-specific legislative action steps. Each step has a number code.
U.S. Congress Legislative Status Steps is a depiction of the steps in relation to the codes. It was published in 1975 within a committee print titled The Bill Status System for the United States House of Representatives.
Legislative subject term
There are approximately 1,000 issue-oriented, entity, and geographic terms which may be assigned to describe a measure's substance and effects.
Major actions identify stages that condense detailed legislative action steps.
Meeting by a committee or subcommittee during which committee members offer, debate, and vote on amendments to a measure.
A legislative vehicle: a bill, joint resolution, concurrent resolution, or simple resolution.
Motion to proceed to consider
A motion in the Senate, which, if agreed to by a majority of those present and voting, brings a measure (e.g., bill) or matter (e.g., nomination) before the chamber for consideration. Often referred to simply as a “motion to proceed.”
Motion to recommit
In the House, a motion offered by a member of the minority party at the end of floor consideration that, if adopted in its simple form, returns the measure to legislative committee. If combined with “instructions to report back forthwith,” the motion effectively provides one last opportunity for a minority party member to offer an amendment to the measure. In the Senate, the motion may be offered at other times during consideration of a measure, and is not a prerogative of a member of the minority party; it may also be used as a means of offering an amendment.
Motion to table
A non-debatable motion in the House and Senate (and in their committees) by which a simple majority may agree to negatively and permanently dispose of a question (e.g., an amendment).
A bill's sponsor designates an official title which may be amended in the course of legislative action. Bills may also have short titles. The more complex a bill becomes, the more likely the bill is to acquire additional titles.
See also Popular title.
Committee’s formal action of agreeing to report a measure or matter to its chamber. See also reported.
An introduced bill that embodies a text approved in a committee markup but not formally introduced prior to the markup. Senate committees are authorized to report original bills within their jurisdictions in addition to reporting measures that have been introduced and referred to them; some House committees also have authority to originate certain measures.
Nonpartisan staff officials (one in each chamber, assisted by deputies and assistants) who provide expert advice and assistance to the presiding officer and to members on the application and interpretation of chamber rules, precedents, and practices (including referral of measures to committee).
Party caucus / conference
The official organization comprised of all members of a political party serving within a congressional chamber (e.g., the Senate Republican Conference, the House Democratic Caucus, etc.).
See amendment exchange.
Point of order
A member’s statement to the presiding officer that the chamber (or committee) is taking action contrary to the rules or precedents, and a demand that they be enforced.
An informal, unofficial name for legislation that may be assigned by the House, Senate, or CRS to improve access. Popular titles are usually not found within official legislative texts (e.g., the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is commonly known as the health care reform bill).
Non-debatable motion, available in the House and its legislative committees, which, when agreed to, cuts off further debate, prevents the offering of additional amendments, and brings the pending matter to an immediate vote.
One of 33 legislative policy areas which best describes the entire measure. Primary subjects are consistently applied across all legislation in Congress.gov.
Legislation that affects consideration of other legislation (e.g., a rule for consideration, a bill ordered to be reported or passed in lieu of another measure).
Pro forma session
A daily session of either chamber held chiefly to avoid the occurrence of either a recess of more than three days within the annual session or an adjournment sine die (either of which would constitutionally require the consent of the other chamber). Pro forma sessions are typically short, with no business, or very little, conducted.
Proposed/offered Senate amendment
A Senate amendment is proposed or offered when a Senator has been recognized by the presiding officer, sends his/her amendment to the desk (or identifies an amendment already at the desk), and the amendment is read by the clerk. The amendment becomes pending before the Senate, and remains pending until disposed of by the Senate. Occasionally the term "called up" is used in lieu of "proposed" or "offered."
Both proposed and submitted amendments are numbered and printed in the Congressional Record.
Minimum number of members of a chamber (or committee) required for the transaction of certain types of business.
Action to formally ascertain the presence of the minimum number of members required to transact business. In the Senate, quorum calls are also commonly used as a sort of “time out” in floor proceedings without recessing the chamber.
The most senior (though not necessarily the longest-serving) member of the minority party on a committee (or subcommittee). The ranking member typically oversees minority committee staff and may coordinate involvement of the minority party committee members in committee activities.
Assignment of a measure to a committee or committees (or subcommittees) for potential consideration.
A related bill may be a companion measure, an identical bill, a procedurally-related measure, or one with substantive similarities. Bill relationships are identified by the House, the Senate, or CRS, and refer only to same-Congress measures.
Formal submission of a measure by a committee to its parent chamber or by a subcommittee to its parent committee. See ordered reported.
Reserved bill number
In recent Congresses, the resolution specifying House internal rules of procedure includes reserving bill numbers for assignment by the Speaker. In the 112th Congress (2011-2012) the practice was extended to reserve additional bill numbers for assignment by the Minority Leader.
In the Senate, some of the lowest bills numbers are reserved for leadership.
In addition to an official title, a bill may be assigned one or more short titles upon introduction, committee or chamber action, or enactment. Short titles may name all or portions of the bill's content. In a display of titles, those that describe the entirety of the bill version appear under a bolded heading (e.g., Short Titles as Passed House), followed by those, if any, that describe portions of the bill. Short titles may change as the bill moves through the legislative process.
See also popular title.
A form of legislative measure introduced and potentially acted upon by only one congressional chamber and used for the regulation of business only within the chamber of origin. Depending on the chamber of origin, they begin with a designation of either H.Res. or S.Res.
A resolution reported by the Rules Committee that, if agreed to by the House, sets the terms for debating and amending a specified measure or measures.
Submitted Senate amendment
An amendment is submitted when a senator files his/her amendment at the desk with the clerk for possible future consideration by the Senate. A submitted amendment is not pending until it is formally proposed/offered by a senator. The term "filed" is sometimes used in lieu of "submitted."
Both proposed and submitted amendments are numbered and printed in the Congressional Record.
Legislation that is similar in both content and meaning, for example one bill repeals or amends another, or one bill has been incorporated into another.
A term sometimes used for a vote on a matter that requires approval by more than a simple majority of those members present and voting, with a quorum being present; also referred to as extraordinary majority.
Suspension of the rules
In the House, a procedure that streamlines consideration of a measure with wide support by prohibiting floor amendments, limiting debate to 40 minutes, and requiring a two-thirds majority for passage. Although rarely used, the Senate may also suspend various rules by a vote of two-thirds following one day’s written notice.
Unanimous consent agreement
In the Senate, a proposal that, if agreed to, establishes the procedural guidelines for considering a measure or matter on the floor. If any member objects to such a request, it is not agreed to. Also sometimes called a “UC agreement” or a “time agreement.”
Unanimous consent request
A proposal that all members (of a chamber or committee) agree to set aside one or more chamber or committee rules to take some action otherwise not in order. If any member objects to such a request, it is not agreed to.
Presidential disapproval of a bill or joint resolution presented to him for enactment into law. If a president vetoes a bill, it can become law only if the House and Senate separately vote (by two-thirds) to override the veto. A less common form of presidential veto – a pocket veto – occurs if Congress has adjourned without the possibility of returning and the President does not sign the measure within the required 10-day (excluding Sundays) period.